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广东省自然保护地数量类型及空间重叠分析
杨志刚, 郭盛才, 林寿明, 徐期瑚
广东省林业调查规划院
摘要:
广东现有县级以上自然保护地 1 359 个,是全国自然保护地建立最早、数量最多的省份,保护地交叉重叠尤其复杂。理清不同自然保护地重叠现状,是自然保护地整合优化及今后的建设管理的基础。以全省自然保护地摸底调查数据为基础,先从级别、类型两个方面总体分析保护地数量特征,再按照设立时间的先后梳理各类保护地出现和发展的趋势,最后用 ArcGIS 对重叠地块作拓扑,对不同类型、级别的保护地之间的空间重叠情况作核密度分析。结果表明:(1) 广东省现有 8 种类型自然保护地,其中自然保护区、森林公园、湿地公园 3 类数量和面积占比最大。从 1956 年至 2020 年,保护地类型、数量、面积均不断增加,整体经历了萌芽、发展、全面快速增加、个别类型持续增长 4 个阶段。(2) 不同类型保护地之间的普遍存在交叉重叠,总重叠面积 44.27 万 hm2,不同类型自然保护地重叠面积占总重叠面积的85.19%,自然保护区与森林公园重叠面积最大;同种类型不同级别之间也存在重叠,国家级和县级自然保护区之间重叠最大。广东省级以上自然保护地数量少,市县级自然保护地数量多,交叉重叠现象普遍,整合优化难度较大。对自然保护地集中的热点区域按照主要自然生态系统类型进行优化整合,加强对市县级保护地的管理;开展保护地有效管理评价,引导各级各类保护地提升保护与管理水平。
关键词:  广东  自然保护地  空间分布  数量特征
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:广东省自然保护地体系建设管理研究项目(21104)。
Analysis on Quantity Types and Spatial Overlap of Nature Protected Areas in Guangdong Province
Yang Zhi-Gang, Guo Shengcai, Lin Shouming, Xu qihu
Guangdong Forestry Survey and Planning Institute
Abstract:
Guangdong has established 1 359 nature protected areas above the county level, which is the earliest and largest number of nature protected areas in China. Clarifying the overlap of different nature protected areas can lay an important foundation for the integration and optimization of nature protected areas and future construction and management. Based on the survey data of nature protected areas in the whole province, the quantitative characteristics of nature protected areas were firstly grasped from two aspects of level and type, then the emergence and development trend of various protected areas were sorted out according to the establishment time. Finally, ArcGIS software is used to analyze the topology of the overlapped plots and the kernel density of the overlapped plots. The results show that (1)There are eight types of nature protected areas in Guangdong province, of which nature reserves, forest parks and wetland parks account for the largest proportion in quantity and area.From 1956 to 2020, the type, quantity and area of protected areas have been increasing, which has gone through four stages: germination, development, overall rapid increase and prominent growth of partial types. (2)There are common overlapping among different types of nature protected areas.The total overlapping area is 442 700 hm2 , accounting for 85.19% of the total area. The overlapping area of nature reserves and forest parks is the largest. There is also overlap between different levels of the same type, and the national and county-level nature reserves are the largest. The number of nature protected areas above the provincial level in Guangdong province is small, while the number of nature reserves at city and county level is large. The hot spots of nature reserves should be optimized and integrated according to the main types of natural ecosystems, and the management of city and county-level nature reserves should be strengthened; the effective management evaluation of nature reserves should be carried out to guide all kinds of nature reserves at all levels to improve the level of protection and management.
Key words:  Guangdong  Natural protected area  quantitative characteristics  spatial layout