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广东化州3种不同林龄人工林植物多样性研究
宋霞1, 邓子超1, 董辉2, 郭韵2, 吴文华2, 王丹枫2
1.广东省化州国营业丽岗林场;2.中国科学院华南植物园
摘要:
为了研究 3 种不同林龄人工林群落植物组成及其多样性特征,在广东省化州市选取了不同年 龄的尾叶桉 Eucalyptus robusta 林、湿地松 Pinus elliottii 林和混交林各 3 个。通过样地调查法,分析其物 种组成,生物多样性特征和物种耐阴性特征。结果表明:调查样地有维管束植物 150 种,分隶 58 科 111 属, 3 种不同林龄人工林林下植物组成种类差异显著。林下植被物种多样性指数都体现出混交林 > 尾叶 桉林 > 湿地松林的趋势。 40 年混交林的草本层物种多样性指数最低。同一林分不同层次间的物种耐阴性 指数表现为草本层 > 灌木层 > 乔木层,不同林分类型则表现为混交林 > 湿地松林 > 尾叶桉林。由此可知, 桉树林物种多样性并不比同是外来树种的湿地松林低,营造人工混交林有利于提高林下植物物种多样性, 也有利于林分向地带性森林群落演替。
关键词:  人工林  植物多样性  耐阴性  地带性森林群落
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基金项目:广东省林业局2020年野生动植物保护项目
Study on Plant Diversity of Three Different Age Plantations in Huazhou, Guangdong Province
songxia1, dengzichao1, donghui2, guoyun2, wuwenhua2, wangdanfeng2
1.Ligang Forest Farm, Huazhou State Business, Guangdong Province;2.South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
In order to study the community plant composition and diversity characteristics of three plantations of different ages’ Eucalyptus urophylla, Pinus elliottii and mixed forests of different ages were selected in Huazhou city, Guangdong province.Species composition, biodiversity characteristics and species negative tolerance were analyzed by sample plot investigation. The results showed that there were 150 species of vascular plants, which were divided into 58 families and 111 genera, and there were significant differences in the composition of undergrowth plants in the three plantations of different ages. The species diversity index of undergrowth vegetation all showed the trend of mixed forest > E. urophylla forest > P.elliottii forest. The species diversity index of herb layer in 40-year mixed forest was the lowest. The negative tolerance index of species in different levels of the same stand showed as herb layer > shrub layer > tree layer, and different stand types showed as mixed forest > P. elliottii forest > E. urophylla forest. In conclusion, the species diversity of eucalyptus forest is not lower than that of wetland pine forest, which is the same exotic tree species. The construction of artificial mixed forest is beneficial to improve the understory plant species diversity, and is also conducive to the succession of stand to zonal forest community.
Key words:  plantation  plant diversity  shade tolerance  zonal forest community