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缓释肥对马尾松苗木生长和根系形态建成的影响*
陈一群,何波祥,黄建雄,张谦,梁东成,詹金婵,潘庆优,蔡燕灵
1.广东省森林培育与保护利用重点实验室/广东省林业科学研究院;2.信宜市林业科学研究所
摘要:
缓释肥的应用是提高苗木质量和生产效率的有效途径。研究以马尾松Pinus massoniana 轻基质容器苗为培育目标,材用和脂用马尾松家系为材料,采用三因素随机区组试验设计,开展缓释肥养分配比和施用量的育苗试验,筛选适宜的缓释肥养分配比和施用量。缓释肥N-P-K 配比的试验梯度分别为18-5-12、20.5-4.5-10 和23-4-8,施用量试验梯度为1.5、2.0 和2.5 kg · m-3。结果表明:缓释肥的NPK 配比、施用量及其交互作用对苗木的生长量、生物量和根系形态指标的影响显著。适当降低缓释肥中氮的占比,提高磷和钾的占比,显著提高了苗木的苗高、地径生长量以及叶和根的生物量,苗木根系的主根长、平均直径和总体积也显著增加。1 a 生苗高、地径和根系的质量、根冠比随着缓释肥施用量的增加而增大,其根系的主根长、总根长、表面积和总体积也随着显著提高。说明适量添加缓释肥进行平衡施肥,能够促进株高和地径的生长以及根系的形态建成,有利于苗木的生长和物质的累积。适宜马尾松轻基质育苗的缓释肥N-P-K 配比为20.5-4.5-10,施用量以2.5 kg · m-3 为宜,苗木的生长量、生物量和根系总体积与试验群体均值相比整体提高15% 以上。
关键词:  马尾松  缓释肥  育苗  根系形态
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFD0600301)
Effects on the Growth and Root Morphogenesis of Pinus massoniana Seedlings under Different Slow-released Fertilizer Application
CHEN Yiqun1, HE Boxiang1, HUANG Jianxiong2, ZHANG Qian1, LIANG Dongcheng1, ZHAN Jinchan1, PAN Qingyou2, CAI Yanling1,3
1.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Silviculture,Protection and Utilization,Guangdong Academy of Forestry/Guangdong Academy of Forestry,Guangzhou;2.Forestry Research Institute of Xinyi City,Xinyi;3.China
Abstract:
The application of slow-release fertilizer is an effective way to improve seedling quality and production efficiency. In order to determine the proper nutrient proportion and application rate of slow-release fertilizer for Pinus massoniana seedling cultivation with light substrate, a randomized block experiment with three random factors was conducted using timber- and resin-yielding masson pine families. Seedlings were treated with 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 kg · m-3 slow-release fertilizers of 18-5-12, 20.5-4.5-10, and 23-4-8 of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), respectively. The nutrient proportion and application rate of slow-release fertilizer and their interaction exerted significant effect on the seedling growth and root morphogenesis by reducing theproportion of nitrogen and increasing the proportion of phosphorus and potassium in slow-release fertilizer properly, the seedling height, ground diameter growth, and biomass of stem, leaf, and root were significantly increased. The total length, average diameter, surface area, volume of seedling roots, and number of lateral roots also increased significantly. Greater application rate of slow-release fertilizer significantly increased the plant height, stem diameter, root weight, root to shoot ratio, the total length, surface area and volume of the seedling roots. The results indicated that balanced fertilization with slow-release fertilizer of suitable nutrient proportion could promote the growth of plant height, diameter of ground, and its morphogenesis of root system, which was beneficial to the seedling growth and dry material accumulation. The suitable proportion of N, P, K in slow-release fertilizer for P. massoniana seedling cultivation with light substrate was 20.5-4.5-10, and the corresponding application rate of the slow-release fertilizer was 2.5 kg · m-3. Under this treatment, the growth and the biomass of seedlings increased by more than 15% compared with the average value of the experimental population.
Key words:  Pinus massoniana  slow-release fertilizer  seedling cultivation  root morphogenesis